What are some facts about water that you already know? In this article, we are going to outline some facts about water that you may have just learned about.Water is the main source of life on our earth. The amount of water on earth is very abundant where 2/3 of the earth’s surface is water while in the human body itself, water dominates 60-70 percent of body weight.
With the abundant amount of water on earth, the role and benefits of water are very crucial in supporting life on earth. The benefits of water include drinking water, helping to meet daily household needs, means of transportation, energy generation, as a vehicle for tourism, is very important in the industrial world, plays a role in irrigation, to its role in agriculture, fisheries, etc.
Water is available on earth in the form of liquid, solid, or gas. Pure water is tasteless, odorless, and colorless. Water has a number of unique characteristics to both physical and chemical properties. This is mainly due to the unique structure of water with its hydrogen bonds.
There are many sources of water, including rainwater, surface water (such as ditches, rivers, lakes, human activities and living bodies), groundwater, and sea water. Each water source is continuously available through a cycle.
Facts About Water Cycle
About 3.8 billion years ago, the Earth’s water cycle began. It was started with the rain fell on a cooling Earth and forming the oceans. The water vapor that escaped the magma in the Earth’s molten core into the atmosphere and forming rain. The water cycle was powered by the help of energy from the sun and Earth’s gravity kept water in the atmosphere from leaving the planet.
About 97 percent of the Earth surface is dominated by water. The polar ice caps and glaciers store the Earth’s water for about 1.7 percent. The same portion (1.7 percent) of waters are in form of rivers, lakes, and soil. While the rest of tiny fraction (about 0.001 percent exists in the Earth’s atmosphere as water vapor.
The water vapor will be condensed and fall back to Earth as rain or snow. Most of water precipitated in the oceans. While the rest of water are flow into rivers, streams, and lakes. Some of it seeps into the soil Abd forming the groundwater.
When water from the ocean and from the earth surface are warmed by the sun, the water will be evaporated. Water vapor rises into the atmosphere and forming clouds by process of condensation. It then falls back to the Earth and the processes cycle will be repeated again.
Molecule Structure of Water
Pure water is a compound which is the simplest chemistry. Chemistry consists of two hydrogen atoms (H) and one the oxygen atoms (O) that are bonded to each other. Hydrogen atoms are bonded to oxygen atom asymmetric, so the two hydrogen atoms are on one end, while the oxygen atoms are on the other end. Hydrogen is a chemical element, very reactive, the atoms can form covalent bonds with the use of electrons simultaneously.
Based on elemental properties, this hydrogen in water molecules then forming covalent bonds between hydrogen elements and oxygen. In this every covalent bond the hydrogen atom has one electron used simultaneously with atoms oxygen, while the oxygen atom get the two electrons it needs for the need for its outer electrons thus also the case with the hydrogen atom.
As a result of the molecule structure of water, some unique characteristics of water are formed. Some of those characteristics are:
- Surface tension
The presence of hydrogen bonds in the molecule water causes water to tend to stick together form a force called cohesion. This cohesion is required for against forces from outside the molecule to be breaking hydrogen bonds.
This cohesion occurs at the boundary between water and air, thus forming a “skin” across water level. This “skin” is strong enough for prop up small objects, this forecalled surface tension. Among other things many liquids, water has a voltage the highest surface, this thing allows the association of organisms both living under it and in upon it.
- Heat of evaporation
Water has a high heat of evaporation. This appears when water is heated then the evaporation process will take place slower than other fluids. This matter occurs as a result of bond strength hydrogen between the water molecules that must be decided so that the molecules can be detached.
The high heat of this water evaporation causing the high boiling point of water (100 ° C), therefore water on the earth’s surface are liquid and not gaseous. This nature of water can make water as an excellent cooling agent, because it can absorb a large amount of heat.
- Temperature density
In general, the fluids will be dense with the colder temperature. The liquid is cooled until it becomes solid, then the solid form of this liquid becomes denser compared to its liquid form. This condition does not happen to water, because water has a strange temperature density. Water will become denser when cooled down at 4 ° C and under cooling. Furthermore, the water density is getting higher decreased.
The uniqueness of the physical properties of water is what causing the ice to be cooler in comparison with water and can float on water. This characteristic plays an important role in life in the sea, because if it doesn’t have these properties then most of the volume of the oceans cannot inhabited because the sea water will take shape large ice chunks.
- Dissolving capacity of water
Water can dissolve chemicals and can be used as a medium in which various chemical reactions take place. Most of chemical processes in our body are using water as a solvent. The ability of water in the process of dissolving chemicals is called water solubility, and solubility depends on the nature polarized water molecules and hydrogen bonds. As a polar solvent, water can also dissolve various kinds of salt depending on the interaction between salt ions with electric charge possessed by water molecules.
Those are some facts about water. You need to know about water because you can’t be alive without any water on this earth. Let’s save the clean water for the future generation!